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PACHYMETRY
The measurement of intra-ocular pressure (pressure within the eye) is an important element in the detection of glaucoma. Historically doctors have accepted eye pressure values directly. It is now understood that when intra-ocular pressure is measured the validity of the pressure test is directly influenced by the thickness of the cornea, the outer clear window of the eye. Since the thickness of the cornea varies meaningfully from eye to eye, it becomes a factor in the determination of ...

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PAPILLEDEMA
Papilledema is an ocular condition that causes swelling of the optic nerve. It is commonly bilateral, affecting both eyes, affects both sexes equally, can occur at any age, and is most commonly caused by increased pressure in the brain. Each optic nerve transmits visual impulses from the retina and transmits the nerve impulses to the brain. The optic nerve is covered by the same protective sheath or linings that cover the brain and spinal cord. This sheath is regarded as a continuatio...

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People Who Have Alzheimer’s Disease or Who Are at Risk: Better Testing
People Who Have Alzheimer s Disease or Who Are at Risk: Better Testing Contents 1 People Who Have Alzheimer’s Disease or Who Are at Risk: Better Testing 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Simpler and Less Expensive 1.3 Immediate Results 1.4 Summing Up People Who Have Alzheimer’s Disease or Who Are at Risk: Better Testing Introduction Alzheimer’s Disease is one of the most feared conditions associated with the aging proces...

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Photorefractive Keratectomy
Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK) PRK (photorefractive keratectomy) involves the removal of the top surface level of the cornea called the epithelium. This exposes the inner cornea so that a cool ultraviolet laser can re-sculpt it to alter the curvature of the eye. For nearsighted people the surgeon flattens the steep cornea and for farsighted people he or she makes the cornea steeper. The laser can also correct astigmatism by smoothing an irregularly shaped cornea. This allows the eye ...

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Pigment Dispersion Syndrome
Pigment Dispersion Syndrome occurs only in certain people – generally white nearsighted males between 20-50... Think of your iris – the coloured part of your eye – as being painted on. Now imagine something constantly rubbing against it. As time passes the paint eventually starts to flake and chip off because of friction. This is basically what happens when you have pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) except the flaking is actually the pigment that colours your eye. The fl...

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Pigmentary Glaucoma
Pigmentary Glaucoma: The Metaphor of The Bathroom Sink A bathroom sink is a good way to illustrate the mechanics of pigmentary glaucoma. Just as the sink drain can become clogged by hair toothpaste and assorted debris the drainage mechanism in the front of the eye can become clogged by the mechanical blockage of pigment cells that have come loose from the iris (the visible tissue that gives your eye color). Under normal circumstances pigment is not shed inside the eye at least not in large ...

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Pinguecula
A pinguecula (pin-gwek-u-la) is a benign, yellowish-whitish nodule or small plaque that develops on the conjunctiva, the clear skin that covers the insides of the eyelids and the whites of the eyes, as a result of ultraviolet light exposure. This photo shows a pinguecula on the white of the eye in the nasal cornea. The pinguecula is yellowish in color and raised slightly, which can interfere with the smoothness of the tears on the surface. Most people know that ultraviolet ...

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Plaquenil Maculopathy
Plaquenil is an anti-inflammatory medication which helps reduce pain stiffness and swelling in the joints. Sometimes medications prescribed for certain conditions can have adverse effects on other parts of our bodies. A medication known as Plaquenil (hydroxychloroquine sulfate) which is most often used for people suffering from rheumatoid arthritis lupus or malaria can have toxic effects on the eyes. Plaquenil is an anti-inflammatory medication which helps reduce pain stiffness and swelling ...

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Possible Laser Surgery Complications
Complications of Laser Surgery Complications and risks are an inherent part of any surgerydespite advanced technology and skilled professionals involved in the process. Although there is a small possibility of a serious vision complication because of laser surgeryit is important to know these risks in order to make an informed decision regarding the procedure. Rememberthe goal of laser surgery is not necessarily to eliminate the need for corrective eyewearbut to reduce a patient&rsquo...

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Pregnancy and Your Vision
Pregnancy and Your Vision Along with all the major and minor changes in your body during pregnancy, there are a few that effect your vision; luckily, most of them are mild and only temporary. Once the baby is born, most changes to your vision resolve and return to normal without any treatment needed. There are a few changes you should be aware of, however, as they can be a sign of more serious problems elsewhere. Contact Lenses in Pregnancy Between curvature changes at the fr...

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Premium IOL's
CATARACT & PREMIUM IOL s A cataract is a clouding of the naturally clear lens inside the eye causing a gradual decrease in vision over time. Nearly half of the population over 65 will have some degree of progressive cataract formation in their lifetime. When vision is affected such that it impedes daily activities, vision can only be restored by surgical removal of the cataract. The goal of cataract surgery is to restore optimum vision with less dependence on eyeglasses. During cataract sur...

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Presbyopia
Presbyopia (>pres-be-O-pe-ah) is a vision condition caused by the aging of the eye. It affects nearly everyone by the age of 50. The Crystalline lens of the eye thickens throughout life making it harder and less flexible over time. The progressive loss of elasticity of the lens results in the eye becoming less capable of focusing on close objects. Tasks like reading small print and computer work become more difficult. Distance vision however is usually unaffected. Presbyopia might seem...

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Presbyopia: What is it, and What are the Options?
No one wants to look older, but most people find that aging does cause many changes to deal with as our bodies adapt to the passage of time. When we hear our eyecare practitioner say the word “bifocal,” we are sure we’ve reached whatever is on the other side of youth and vigor. You are not alone. The inner crystalline lens, located behind the iris, is one of the only types of tissue in the body that continues to grow with each passing year. Eventually, it gets to a poi...

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Preventing AMD Through Nutrition
Age-related macular degeneration commonly referred to as AMD is a disease in which the tissue in the macula deteriorates. The macula is located in the central part of the retina and is responsible for producing sharp central vision. The exact causes of AMD are still unknown although age and heredity appear to be the dominant factors. This condition can result in severely diminished central vision but peripheral vision remains unaffected. In most cases it is impossible to restore the vision loss ...

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Progressive Lenses
Progressive Lenses When we begin to need extra help reading fine print or using a computer, we are said to be entering presbyopia. This is a normal change that occurs for most people when they are 40 to 45 years of age. (For further information, please see our article "Presbyopia: What is it, and What are the Options?") The best choice for most people are multifocal lenses, especially progressive addition lenses (PALs). Multifocal lenses, with or without lines are simp...

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Protecting Your Eyes During Winter
Prolonged exposure can take its toll on you as you age Just like you have to wear sunglasses in the blazing heat of a summer day you should also be keeping your eyes away from the harmful UV rays from above even when it s cold. In case you thought that made you safe from the sun s potentially damaging rays think again. Old Sol still presents a huge danger to you during the fall and winter months and in this case the evidence is right in front of your eyes. The Canadian Ophthalmological Soc...

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Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome
The main problem with pseudoexfoliation is that there is a build-up of flaky material in the angle between the cornea and iris... Most people associate the term “exfoliation” with skin not with the eyes. When something exfoliates it scales off its surface in flakes or layers; we are most familiar with this happening on our arms or legs – after sunburn for example. So picture the shedding of flakes within the eye. This is known as pseudoexfoliation syndrome. This condition i...

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Pterygium
A pterygium (turr-i-gee-um) is a benign triangular-shaped growth or plaque that usually arises in the nasal corner of the eye, extending from the white sclera towards the clear cornea. While it is possible for a pterygium to occur on the side of the eye closest to the temple, about 90% of them originate on the nasal side. A smaller, less disruptive type of growth called a pinguecula can occur and there is some evidence that these small, yellowish-white plaques can convert in...

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Ptosis (Drooping Eyelid)
Gravity loss of elastic tissue in the skin frequently contribute to this sagging eyelid tissue. Ptosis refers to an upper eyelid that droops. In this condition the eyelid is situated over more of the eye at times even blocking out the pupil. It may either be congenital or acquired. Most cases of age-related ptosis – called involutional – come on gradually after age 60 as part of the normal aging process. Congenital cases of ptosis can be easily spotted because children will ti...

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Punctal Plugs
The entire in-office procedure is painless and usually takes only a few minutes. As strange as it sounds just picture a healthy eye as a full sink with tears (instead of water) reaching up to the rim. Dry eye syndrome (DES) occurs when your eyes fail to produce the necessary quality or quantity of tears to protect and preserve the ocular surface. In this case the sink would be pretty empty. Those with DES do not have a sufficient amount of tears to adequately bathe the eyes and therefore of...

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Pupil Dilation
Dilating eyedrops are used for your own benefit to certify that nothing is left undiscovered during your eye examination. Most of us are not even aware that our pupils dilate and constrict as light changes around us. The pupil regulates the amount of light that enters the eye acting similarly to a camera shutter. In the dark your pupil enlarges to allow more light into your eye. In the light it decreases in size. Internal muscles contract or relax to control the shape of the crystalline lens...

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