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Bacterial Conjunctivitis
Most of us have heard the term "pinkeye" used to describe a condition where the eye appears to be red or pink-colored. Usually, the eye is also swollen and uncomfortable, with a sandy or gritty sensation; it may also feel hot, and there is usually a discharge, either watery, or thick and somewhat white, termed mucopurulent. The conjunctiva is the clear membrane of tissue that covers the white of the eye. Essentially, it is a type of transparent skin, and contains tiny blood vessels whic...

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Band Keratopathy
Introduction and Overview Figure 1 The term keratopathy refers to a disease or degeneration of the cornea, the clear, dome-shaped structure at the very front of the eye where light first enters the eye. This particular corneal degeneration is produced when calcium deposits on the cornea, usually in the area between the eyelids when the eye is in the open position. This is probably because this is the area of the cornea most exposed to the normal atmosphere, where th...

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Bell's Palsy
Bell’s Palsy is a common form of temporary facial paralysis, affecting about one out of every 65 people, and about 50,000 North Americans each year. This puzzling condition is the most common cause of facial paralysis. It almost always affects one side of the face only and results from a problem with one branch of the cranial nerve controlling the muscles of the face. With or without treatment, most people with this condition have a very good prognosis, as it will resolve on its own ...

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Black Eye
When we are injured by a blow to a body part, for example, if we fall and hit an arm against a railing or other object, the likely result is a bruise, which is caused by broken blood vessels under the skin and bleeding into the tissue in the area. Swelling, a dark blue-black coloration and soreness in the area are common results. The medical term for a bruise is hematoma. A black eye is also a bruise, and often results from a blunt blow to the area of the face around the eye or e...

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Blepharitis
Blepharitis Overview A common and often persistent condition blepharitis (blef-uh-RYE-tus) refers to a bacterial infestation of the eyelashes. Blepharitis usually results from poor eyelid hygiene a low-grade bacterial infection and/or irregular functioning of the oil gland. It rarely results in long-term damage to vision but it can cause both ingrown and the loss of eyelashes. The ingrown eyelashes cause further irritation to the eye area. In severe cases there is a loss of pigment in the ...

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Blepharitis: Making Matters Worse
Introduction and Overview Blepharitis, also known as meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), is the term used for a family of eyelid margin disorders that cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching or burning, dryness, crusty lids, grittiness, and even eventual loss of eyelashes. If the lashes grow back, sometimes they no longer have pigment or they grow in the wrong direction, back towards the eye, which can cause a secondary irritation to the ocular tissues. Figure 1 ...

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Blepharochalasis
Blepharochalasis is a condition that affects the eyelids as they lose their natural elasticity in the aging process. Fluids can build up in the tissues of the lower lids and cause them to sag, and the upper lids to droop, sometimes to the extent that they may cover part of the visual axis, or line of sight. However, it is also seen in younger people, typically during puberty or who are in their early 20s. In figure 1, we see a typical appearance of blepharochalasis; note especiall...

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Blepharospasm
Introduction Blepharospasm is a disorder of the nerves that control the eyelid, which may appear to others that the sufferer is deliberately closing their eyes tightly. Also called eyelid blepharospasm and benign essential blepharospasm, this condition manifests as an uncontrollable, forceful closure of the eyelids. Usually it affects both eyes at once, although in some cases only one eye is impaired. Blepharospasm can sometimes begin with episodes of eyelid...

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BlephEx: A New Tool for Better Treatment in Blepharitis
Blepharitis is the medical term used for a family of eyelid margin disorders and inflammation that cause symptoms such as redness, swelling of the lid margins, itching or burning, dryness, crusty eyelids, grittiness and even the eventual loss of eyelashes. Possible causes of blepharitis are underlying bacterial infection, skin conditions or infestation by a mite called demodex; in these, it is possible to treat these to a large extent by treating the source of the problem, improving...

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Blindness From Smoking
Teenagers fear blindness more than lung cancer or stroke nine out of 10 don t know that smoking can rob them of their sight in later life. Teenagers fear blindness more than lung cancer or strokebut nine out of 10 don t know that smoking can rob them of their sight in later lifereveals research published ahead of print in the British Journal of Ophthalmology. The findings are based on the responses of 260 clubbers aged between 16 and 18collected at four UK ven...

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Botox Cosmetic: Consider all the Factors
Introduction As we age, it is natural for us to experience the signs and symptoms on the place we use most often for interacting with other people: the face. In decisions about cosmetic treatments such as dermal peels, fillers or Botox Cosmetic injections, we should probably try to remember that the changes that age brings to the face are natural and normal. While we might not be overjoyed by this news, it’s important to keep our expectations on the side of reality rather th...

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Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion and Central Retinal Artery Occlusion
We are conditioned to maintain a healthy diet and a healthy lifestyle from every direction; we usually think this is to prevent heart disease, diabetes or stroke. What most of us don’t realize is that what is happening elsewhere in the body is also happening within the eyes. As we age, a natural plaque begins to form in the arteries that allow the blood to carry nutrients and oxygen to all parts of the body. No one is exempt from this, but it only becomes a problem if the amount o...

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Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion and Central Retinal Vein Occlusion
We are reminded daily to live a healthy lifestyle, including a good diet and lots of exercise, but we don’t usually associate the risks associated with not doing so with the loss of our eyesight. During a comprehensive vision examination, an eyecare practitioner will view the inside of the eye to look for any unusual changes there, especially concerning the circulatory system and the tiny arteries and veins that carry oxygen and nutrients to the tissues of the retina. It is fascina...

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