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Ectropion
As we age, most of us experience the facial wrinkles and sagging skin associated with having celebrated more birthdays. Unfortunately, sometimes that relaxation of the tissues of the eyelids causes a condition called ectropion that results in the bottom lid sagging downwards and outwards so its edge is no longer right next to the globe. Our tears are constantly being replenished by glands in both lids and the lacrimal gland, located above each eye. The excess tears normally escape the ey...

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Emmetropia
When a distant image is focused perfectly on the back of the retina when accommodation is at rest this condition is termed emmetropia. The eye functions like a camera – it has an optical system (the tear film cornea aqueous humor lens and vitreous humors) and a light-responsive film (the retina). The image of an object is in focus on the retina when the optical power and the length of the eye are equal. The length of the eye is fixed but the power of the eye can be changed by a process cal...

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Entropion
Entropion is a condition in which the lower eyelid and eyelashes roll inward towards the eye. Overview Entropion is the medical term used to describe a condition in which the lower eyelid and eyelashes roll inward towards the eye. The skin of the eyelid and the eyelashes rub against the cornea and the conjunctiva causing ocular discomfort irritation and tearing. Entropion occurs mostly due to the relaxation of eyelid tissues as a result of aging. Eyelid skin is the thinnest skin of the ...

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Epiretinal Membrane
Epiretinal Membrane The space in the back part of the eye, behind the inner crystalline lens, is filled with a gelatin-like substance known as the vitreous, also called the vitreous humour. The vitreous makes up about 80% of the volume of the eye and helps it keep its normal, round shape. Part of the function of the vitreous is to hold the retina in place against the back of the eye which helps to provide clear, undistorted vision. The vitreous contains numerous fine stran...

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Episcleritis
Introduction The medical term for the white part of the eye is sclera; the sclera consists of the white part of the eye we see when we look at the eyes of others or ourselves in a mirror, but it also continues completely around the globe itself. The sclera is composed of fibrils of connective tissue which form a strong sheath to lend structure and support to the eye and the tissues it contains. It could be said that the sclera is the part of the eye that keeps the inside in and the outside...

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Epithelial Basement Membrane Dystrophy
Introduction A corneal dystrophy is a non-infectious, non-inflammatory breakdown or deterioration of one or more of the five layers of the cornea, the clear, dome-shaped structure covering the front of the eye. The cornea is the first surface that light passes through on its way to the retina, so maintaining its smoothness and the regularity of its tissues is necessary for clear, undistorted vision. The outermost layer of tissue is the epithelium, a type of modified skin cell, whi...

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Exercise Your Eyes for Optimum Performance
Most of us realize that exercise helps us keep our muscles flexible and efficient, but we don’t usually think about how the muscles that control the movement of the eyes or those that help us change focus from distant objects to close-up reading materials could also benefit from a short workout now and then. While these exercises won’t allow us to get rid of our glasses (if we use them) or replace our annual vision examination, they will help to keep our eye muscles from becom...

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Eye Exams
Vision Tests Most of us wouldn’t put anything as serious as our health into the hands of non-professionals – that’s just common knowledge. While you may be able to cut corners in other aspects of life (like hiring the neighbourhood kid to mow your lawn) there is no substitute for medical care. That wasn’t the message sent to British Columbian citizens in April 2004; the B.C. government announced it had drafted legislation to allow opticians to provide Vision tests ...

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Eye Injuries and Foreign Bodies: First Aid for Adults
  Introduction When someone injures an eye or gets a foreign object in it, it may be normal for others nearby to either panic or to use cold water to try to alleviate the problem. Neither of these responses is especially useful, however, so here are a few quick tips in case this ever happens to you.     Trauma When someone has been hit in the eye, protect it with a temporary shield made from a foam drinking cup taped to the bone around the eye...

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Eye Injuries and Foreign Bodies: First Aid for Children
Whenever a child is injured, we all want to help, but sometimes we just don’t know what to do. Here are some helpful tips for first aid when a child injures an eye. First, here are some common-sense precautions to take to prevent injury to your child or yourself. Small flying objects like debris from a lawn mower or sawdust from a workbench can often enter the eye and even penetrate to the interior of the eye. Always use eye protection when working in such areas, and make sure everyone...

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Eyecare Practitioners: Who Does What?
There are three types of professionals who provide an outstanding level of patient care in Canada and the US: Optometrists, Ophthalmologists and Opticians. Often, people are confused as to which professional they should seek out when they need ocular or vision eyecare. Making the confusion worse is the fact that there is some overlap between the three. Ocular care and vision services are provided by eyecare practitioners known informally as the three “O” professions: Optome...

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Eyeglass Care and Maintenance
Congratulations on your new glasses! Today’s advanced lens materials and coatings are used to optimize your vision, reduce bothersome glare and reflections and protect your eyes from harmful UV rays. Teamed up with frames made using advanced plastics, high-quality metals and great style, your new glasses are well worth the time it takes to properly care for them. Do s and Don ts Do always wet your lenses before wiping or cleaning them, to prevent micro-scratches from dust partic...

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Eyewear for Different Sports
Eyewear for Different Sports Every sport requires something different from its playersbe it speedagilityprecisionteamwork or strength. Each sport requires unique eyewear to best protect its players from injuries while also enhancing vision for superior performance. Below is a list of popular sports and types of protective eyewear that are essential to safe and comfortable play. Information on protective eyewear involving tennisbadmintonsquashracquetball and ping-pong: Eye injuries a...

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Eyewear for Sports: Protection and Performance
Participating in sports is healthy and the activity is good for everyone. Each type of sport requires different visual skills, just as it does physical skills like speed, agility, strength and balance. The best eyewear for sports will enhance vision and protect the eyes from injury at the same time. We make recommendations for sports eyewear with these two goals in mind, although the discussion for each type of sport emphasizes eye protection and safety. The lenses in the eyewear are m...

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